A centrifuge machine is a common laboratory equipment used in many clinical laboratories, hospitals, research centers, and industrial laboratories. The main purpose of a centrifuge machine is to separate various components from a solution for instance to purify cells, subcellular organelles, viruses, proteins, and nucleic acids.
It utilizes the sedimentation principle which involves the centrifugal force from the rotor speed and density to separate the component according to their size, shape, and viscosity. The centrifugal force is proportional to the rotation rate of the rotor. During this centrifugation process, the centrifugal force will cause the denser component to form a sediment (pellet) below the centrifuge tube while another low low-density component (supernatant) will rise.
Centrifuge rotor categories:
Fixed-angle Rotor The fixed angle rotor rigidly holds the tube at the same fixed angle, usually, 45 degrees angle all the time with high rpm for a high separation of samples. This rotor is commonly used in research or microbiology laboratories for the pelleting application of bacteria, yeast, or mammal cell debris. When centrifugal force is applied, the tube mixture will reorient, causing a denser component (pellet) to form sediment in the bottom of the tubes.
2. Swing-out Rotor The swing-out rotor does not rigidly attach to the bucket that holding the tube. During the centrifugation process, applied centrifugal force causing the bucket to spin horizontally at 90 degrees angle. This swing-out bucket rotor takes advantage by separating the sample mixtures into a gradient density, thus ideal for the separation of multiple mixtures in a solution such as blood. The longer path length for the permit allows a better separation of the mixtures.
The centrifuge machine has different categories and features to cater to various laboratory purposes and applications. Below are the types of centrifuges according to their necessities:
Micro-centrifuge This compact benchtop centrifuge is used to accommodate small volume tubes ranging from 0.2ml PCR tubes to 2ml microcentrifuge tubes. Gyrozen mini centrifuge can be operated at the maximum speed of 13,500 rpm and offers an interchangeable rotor to facilitate the use of larger tubes along with smaller ones.
• Low-speed centrifuge A low-speed centrifuge is a common type used in clinical and hospital laboratories for the routine separation of blood samples and other biological samples. This centrifuge usually operates at a maximum speed of 4000-5000 rpm, allowing for excellent mixture separation without causing trauma and affecting the integrity of the samples. They are usually operated at room temperature as they are not provided with a system for controlling the speed or temperature of the operation.
• Multipurpose high-speed centrifuge This benchtop multipurpose centrifuge can be operated at a maximum speed of 15,000 rpm with a large volume capacity and comes with both refrigerated and non-refrigerated types. Gyrozen 1248 and 1248R centrifuge is an all-in-one solution for various sophisticated laboratory applications to increase the productivity of routine lab analysis. 1248R is designed with a temperature control function range from -20 ℃ to 40 ℃ to protect temperature-sensitive samples such as live cells, DNA, RNA, and proteins.
• Floor-standing high-speed centrifuge If bench space is a limitation, then a floor-standing type of centrifuge would be beneficial. The Gyrozen 1238R centrifuge is a floor-standing refrigerated centrifuge ideal for large-volume daily working laboratories as it can hold a lot more loads at one time. The maximum speed is 12,000 RPM with an ergonomic height of 84cm for easy sample load and unloading. It is equipped with various features, large capacities, and versatile rotor selection for various centrifuge applications.
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